television TV sometimes shortened to telly or telly is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome black and white or in color and in two or three dimensions and sound the term can refer to a television set a television programme TV show or the medium of television transmission television is a mass medium for advertising entertainment and news television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers after World War two an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States in Britain and television sets became commonplace in homes businesses and institutions during the 1950s television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion in the mid 1960s color broadcasting was introduced in the US and most other developed countries the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax VHS tape local discs DVDs flash drives high definition blu-ray discs and cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material such as movies at home on their own time schedule for many reasons especially the convenience of remote retrieval the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the crowd at the end of the first decade of the 2000s digital television transmissions greatly increased in popularity another development was the move from standard definition television SD TV 576i with 576 interlaced lines of resolution and 480i to high-definition television HD TV which provides a resolution that is substantially higher HD TV may be transmitted in various formats 1080p 1080i and 720p since 2010 with the invention of smart television internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the internet through streaming video services such as Netflix Amazon video iPlayer and Hulu in 2013 79 percent of the world’s households owned the television set the replacement of early bulky high voltage cathode ray Chu CRT screen displays with compact energy-efficient flat panel alternative technologies such as LCDs both fluorescent backlit and LED OLED displays and plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat panel mainly LEDs major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT DLP plasma and even fluorescent backlight LCDs by the mid 2010’s in the near future LEDs are expected to be gradually replaced by o LEDs also major manufacturers have announced that they will increasingly produce smart TVs in the mid 2010 s smart TVs with integrated internet and web 2.
0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010 television signals were initially distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber satellite systems and since the 2000s via the Internet until the early 2000s these were transmitted as analog signals but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010 a standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals a visual display device which lacks a tuner is correctly called a video monitor rather than a television you topic etymology the word television comes from ancient Greek telly telly meaning far and Latin vicio meaning sight the first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900 when the Russian scientists constant in Persky used it in a paper that he presented in French at the first International Congress of electricity which ran from eighteen to the 25th of August 1904 in Paris the anglicized version of the term is first attested in 1907 when it was still a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires it was formed in English or borrowed from French television in the 19th century and early 20th century other proposals for the name of a then hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance with telephoto 1880 and Televisa 1904 the abbreviation TV is from 1948 the use of the term to mean a television set dates from 1941 the use of the term to mean television as a medium dates from 1927 the slang term tele is more common in the UK the slang term the tube or the boob tube derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs another slang term for the TV is idiot box also in the 1940s and throughout the 1950s during the early rapid growth of television programming and television set ownership in the United States another slang term became widely used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions originally created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theatres be small screen as both a compound adjective and noun became specific references to television while the big screen was used to identify productions made for theatrical release you topic history topic mechanical facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century Alexander Bane introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846 Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851 Willoughby Smith discovered the photo conductivity of the element selenium in 1873 as a 23 year old German university student paul julius Gottlieb nib cow proposed and patented the NIP Cour disc in 1884 this was a spinning disc with a spiral pattern of holes in it so each hole scanned a line of the image although he never built a working model of the system variations of nipkow spinning disk image rasterizer became exceedingly common Konstantin Persky had coined the word television in a paper read to the International electricity Congress at the International World Fair in Paris on the 24th of August 1904 sees paper reviewed the existing electromechanical technologies mentioning the work of Nick Cao and others however it was not until 1907 that developments in amplification tube technology by lee deforest and arthur corn among others made the design practical the first demonstration of the live transmission of images was by George Rigg new and a fornia in Paris in 1909 a matrix of 64 selenium cells individually wired to a mechanical commutator served as an electronic retina in the receiver a type of Kerr cell modulated the light in a series of variously angled mirrors attached to the edge of a rotating disc scanned the modulated beam onto the display screen a separate circuit regulated synchronization the 8×8 pixel resolution in this proof-of-concept demonstration was just sufficient to clearly transmit individual letters of the alphabet an updated image was transmitted several times each second in 1921 Edouard Belen sent the first image via radio waves with his Berliner Graf in 1911 Boris rosing and his student Vladimir Zworykin created a system that used a mechanical mirror drum scanner to transmit in Bracken’s words very crude images over wires to the Brawn tube cathode ray tube or CRT in the receiver moving images were not possible because in the scanner the sensitivity was not enough and the selenium cell was very laggy by the 1920s when amplification made television practical Scottish inventor John Logie Baird employed the NIP cow disc in his prototype video systems on the 25th of March 1925 Baird gave the first public demonstration of televised silhouette images in motion at Selfridges department store in London since human faces had inadequate contrast to show up on his primitive system he televised a ventriloquist’s dummy maimed Stookey bill whose painted face had higher contrast talking and moving by the 26th of January 1926 he demonstrated the transmission of the image of a face in motion by radio this is widely regarded as the first television demonstration the subject was Birds business partner Oliver hutchinson Baird system used the NIP cow disk for both scanning the image and displaying it a bright light shining through a spinning nipkow disc set with lenses projected a bright spot of light which swept across the subject a selenium photoelectric tube detected the light reflected from the subject and converted it into a proportional electrical signal this was transmitted by AM radio waves to a receiver unit where the video signal was applied to a neon light behind the second MIT cow disc rotating synchronized with the first the brightness of the neon lamp was varied in proportion to the brightness of each spot on the image as each hole in the disc passed by one scan line of the image was reproduced Beds disc had 30 holes producing an image with only 30 scan lines just enough to recognize a human face in 1927 Baird transmitted a signal over 438 miles 705 kilometres of telephone line between London and Glasgow in 1928 Baird’s company Baird television Development Company cinema television broadcast the first transatlantic television signal between London and New York and the first Shore to ship transmission in 1929 he became involved in the first experimental mechanical television service in Germany in November of the same year Baird and Bernhard Norton of pathya stablished France first television company television Baird Norton in 1931 he made the first outdoor remote broadcast of the Derby in 1932 he demonstrated ultra shortwave television birds mechanical system reached a peak of 240 lines of resolution on BBC television broadcasts in 1936 though the mechanical system did not scan the televised scene directly instead a seventeen point five millimeters film was shot rapidly developed and then scanned while the film was still wet an American inventor Charles Francis Jenkins also pioneered the television he published an article on motion pictures by wireless in 1913 but it was not until December 1923 that he transmitted moving silhouette images for witnesses and it was on the 13th of June 1925 that he publicly demonstrated synchronized transmission of silhouette pictures in 1925 Jenkins used the NIP cow disk and transmitted the silhouette image of a toy windmill in motion over a distance of five miles from a naval radio station in Maryland to his laboratory in Washington DC using a lens disc scanner with a 48 line resolution he was granted US patent number 1 million five hundred and forty four thousand one hundred and fifty six transmitting pictures over wireless on the 30th of June 1925 filed the 13th of March 1922 Herbert E Ives and Frank gray of Bell Telephone laboratories gave a dramatic demonstration of mechanical television on the 7th of April 1927 there reflected light television system included both small and large viewing screens the small receiver had a two inch wide by 2.
5 inch high screen the large receiver had a screen 24 inches wide by 30 inches high both sets were capable of reproducing reasonably accurate monochromatic moving images along with the pictures the sets received synchronized sound the system transmitted images over two parts first a copper wire link from Washington to New York City then a radio link from Whippany New Jersey comparing the two transmission methods viewers noted no difference in quality subjects of the telecast included Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover a flying spot scanner beam illuminated these subjects the scanner that produced the beam had a 50 aperture disc the disc revolved at a rate of 18 frames per second capturing one frame about every 56 milliseconds today’s systems typically transmit 30 or 60 frames per second or one frame every 33.
3 or 16.
7 milliseconds respectively television historian Albert Abramson underscore the significance of the Bell Labs demonstration it was in fact the best demonstration of a mechanical television system ever made to this time it would be several years before any other system could even begin to compare with it in picture quality in 1928 w RGB then W 2x B was started as the world’s first television station it broadcast from the General Electric facility in Schenectady New York it was popularly known as WGY television meanwhile in the Soviet Union Leon theremin had been developing a mirror drum based television starting with 16 lines resolution in 1925 then 32 lines and eventually 64 using interlacing in 1926 as part of his thesis on the 7th of May 1926 he electrically transmitted and then projected near simultaneous moving images on a 5-foot square screen by 1927 he achieved an image of 100 lines a resolution that was not surpassed until May 1932 by RCA with 120 lines on the 25th of December 1926 kenjiro Takayanagi demonstrated a television system with a 40 line resolution that employed a nit cow disc scanner in CRT display at hammer Matsu industrial high school in Japan this prototype is still on display at the Takayanagi Memorial Museum in she’s okie University hammer mat-su campus his research in creating a production model was halted by the United States after Japan lost world or two because only a limited number of holes could be made in the disks and disks beyond a certain diameter became impractical image resolution on mechanical television broadcasts was relatively low ranging from about 30 lines up to 120 or so nevertheless the image quality of 30 line transmission steadily improved with technical advances and by 1933 the UK broadcasts using the Baird system were remarkably clear a few systems ranging into the 200 line region also went on the air two of these with a 180 line system that Campania des comptes CDC installed in Paris in 1935 and the 180 line system that Peck television Corp started in 1935 at Station ve9 aka in Montreal the advancement of all electronic television including image dissectors and other camera tubes and cathode ray tubes for the reproducer marked the beginning of the end for mechanical systems as the dominant form of television mechanical television despite its inferior image quality and generally smaller picture would remain the primary television technology until the 1930s the last mechanical television broadcasts ended in 1939 at stations run by a handful of public universities in the United States you topic electronic in 1897 English physicist JJ Thompson was able in his three famous experiments to deflect cathode rays a fundamental function of the modern cathode ray tube CRT the earliest version of the CRT was invented by the German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1897 and is also known as the braun tube it was a cold cathode ioad a modification of the crooks tube with a phosphor coated screen in 1906 the Germans Max dieckmann and Gustav blades produced raster images for the first time in a CRT in 1907 Russian scientist Boris rosing used a CRT in the receiving end of an experimental video signal to form a picture he managed to display simple geometric shapes onto the screen in 1908 Allen Archibald Campbell Swinton fellow of the Royal Society UK published a letter in the scientific journal Nature in which he described how distant electric vision could be achieved by using a cathode ray tube or braun tube as both a transmitting and receiving device he expanded on his vision in a speech given in London in 1911 and reported in the times in the Journal of the röntgen Society in a letter to nature published in October 1926 Campbell Swinton also announced the results of some not very successful experiments he had conducted with GM mention and JC M Stanton they had attempted to generate an electrical signal by projecting an image onto a selenium coated metal plate that was simultaneously scanned by a cathode ray beam these experiments were conducted before March 1914 when Minchin died but they were later repeated by two different teams in 1937 by H Miller and JW strange from Emmie and by H AIIMS and they rose from RCA both teams succeeded in transmitting very faint images with the original Campbell Swinton selenium coated plate although others had experimented with using a cathode ray tube as a receiver the concept of using one as a transmitter was novel the first cathode ray tube to use a hot cathode was developed by John B Johnson who gave his name to the term Johnson noise and her we know wine heart of Western Electric and became a commercial product in 1922 in 1926 Hungarian engineer Coleman tihany designed a television system utilizing fully electronic scanning and display elements in employing the principle of charge storage within the scanning or camera tube the problem of low sensitivity to light resulting in low electrical output from transmitting or camera tubes would be solved with the introduction of charge storage technology by Coleman tihany beginning in 1924 his solution was a camera tube that accumulated and stored electrical charges photoelectrons within the tube throughout each scanning cycle the device was first described in a patent application he filed in Hungary in March 1926 for a television system he dubbed radio scope after further refinements included in a 1928 patent application T honggi’s patent was declared void in Great Britain in 1930 so he applied for patents in the United States although his breakthrough would be incorporated into the design of RCA’s Icona scope in 1931 the US patent for Tihar news transmitting tube would not be granted until May 1939 the patent for his receiving tube had been granted the previous october both patents had been purchased by RCA prior to their approval charge storage remains a basic principle in the design of imaging devices for television to the present day on the 25th of December 1926 at hammer Matsu industrial high school in Japan Japanese inventor kenjiro Takayanagi demonstrated a TV system with a 40 line resolution that employed a CRT display this was the first working example of a fully electronic television receiver Takayanagi did not apply for a patent on the 7th of September 1927 American inventor Philo Farnsworth’s image dissector camera tube transmitted its first image a simple straight line at his laboratory at 202 Greene Street in San Francisco by the 3rd of September 1928 Farnsworth developed the system sufficiently to hold a demonstration for the press this is widely regarded as the first electronic television demonstration in 1929 the system was improved further by the elimination of a motor generator so that his television system now had no mechanical parts that year Farnsworth transmitted the first live human images with his system including a three and a half inch image of his wife Elma hem with her eyes closed possibly due to the bright lighting required meanwhile Vladimir Zworykin was also experimenting with the cathode ray tube to create and show images while working for Westinghouse Electric in 1923 he began to develop an electronic camera tube but in a 1925 demonstration the image was dim had low contrast and poor definition and with stationary swara Kunz imaging tube never got beyond the laboratory stage but RCA which acquired the westinghouse patent asserted that the patent for Farnsworth’s 1927 image dissector was written so broadly that it would exclude any other electronic imaging device thus RCA on the basis of Zworykin 1923 patent application filed a patent interference suit against Farnsworth the US Patent Office examiner disagreed in a 1935 decision finding priority of invention for Farnsworth against war icon Farnsworth claimed that swara Coons 1923 system would be unable to produce an electrical image of the type to challenge his patent swore I can received a patent in 1928 for a color transmission version of his 1923 patent application he also divided his original application in 1931 swore eicken was unable or unwilling to introduce evidence of a working model of his tube that was based on his 1923 patent application in September 1939 after losing an appeal in the courts and determined to go forward with the commercial manufacturing of television equipment RCA agreed to pay Farnsworth 1 million dollars over a 10-year period in addition to license payments to use his patents in 1933 RCA introduced an improved camera tube that relied on t-harness charge storage principle dubbed the Icona scope by Zworykin the new tube had a light sensitivity of about 75, 000 Lux and thus was claimed to be much more sensitive than Farnsworth’s image dissector however Farnsworth had overcome his power problems with his image dissector through the invention of a completely unique multi Pachter device that he began work on in 1930 and demonstrated in 1931 this small tube could amplify a signal reportedly to the 60th power or better and showed great promise in all fields of electronics unfortunately a problem with the multi factor was that it wore out at an unsatisfactory rate at the Berlin radio show in August 1931 manfred von Ardenne gave a public demonstration of a television system using a CRT for both transmission and reception however Ardenne had not developed a camera tube using the CRT instead as a flying spot scanner to scan slides in film Philo Farnsworth gave the world’s first public demonstration of an all-electronic television system using a live camera at the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia on the 25th of August 1934 and for 10 days afterwards Mexican inventor Guillermo gondola Camarena also played an important role in early TV his experiments with TV known as two electroscope erat first began in 1931 and led to a patent for the trichromatic field sequential system color television in 1940 in Britain the Emmy engineering team led by Isaac Schoenberg applied in 1932 for a patent for a new device they dubbed the emitter in’ which formed the heart of the cameras they designed for the BBC on the 2nd of november 1936 a 405 line broadcasting service employing the emitter in’ began at studios in alexandra palace and transmitted from a specially built mast to top one of the Victorian buildings towers it alternated for a short time with beds mechanical system in adjoining studios but was more reliable and visibly superior this was the world’s first regular high-definition television service the original American Icona scope was noisy had a high ratio of interference to signal and ultimately gave disappointing results especially when compared to the high-definition mechanical scanning systems then becoming available the M II team under the supervision of Isaac Schoenberg analyzed how the Icona scope or emit Rijn produces an electronic signal and concluded that it’s real efficiency was only about 5% of the theoretical maximum they solved this problem by developing and patenting in 1934 two new camera tubes dubbed super emission and cps emit Rijn the super emission was between 10 and 15 times more sensitive than the original emitter inand iconoscope tubes and in some cases this ratio was considerably greater it was used for outside broadcasting by the BBC for the first time on Armistice Day 1937 when the general public could watch on a television set as the King laid a wreath at the Cenotaph this was the first time that anyone had broadcast a live street scene from cameras installed on the roof of neighboring buildings because neither Farnsworth nor RCA would do the same until the 1939 New York World’s Fair on the other hand in 1934 swore I can shared some patent rights with the German licensee company Telefunken the image icon of scope super econo scope in Germany was produced as a result of the collaboration this tube is essentially identical to the super emitter on the production and commercialization of the super emitter and an image Icona scope in Europe were not affected by the patent war between Zworykin and Farnsworth because dieckmann and hell had priority in Germany for the invention of the image dissector having submitted a patent application for their Licht electricians Leger or affirmed to her photoelectric image dissector tube for television in Germany in 1925 two years before Farnsworth did the same in the United States the image ikana scope supera kinescope became the industrial standard for public broadcasting in europe from 1936 until 1960 when it was replaced by the vidicon and plumber con tubes indeed it was the represented of the European tradition in electronic tubes competing against the American tradition represented by the image orthicon the German company hymen produced the super Aquino Scott for the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games later hymen also produced and commercialized it from 1940 to 1955 finally the Dutch company Philips produced and commercialized the image Icona scope and Multi Kahn from 1952 to 1958 American television broadcasting at the time consisted of a variety of markets in a wide range of sizes each competing for programming and dominance with separate technology until deals were made and standards agreed upon in 1941 RCA for example used only Icona scopes in the New York area but Farnsworth image dissectors in Philadelphia and San Francisco in September 1939 RCA agreed to pay the Farnsworth television and radio corporation royalties over the next 10 years for access to Farnsworth’s patents with this historic agreement in place RCA integrated much of what was best about the Farnsworth technology into the systems in 1941 the United States implemented 525 line television electrical engineer Benjamin Adler played a prominent role in the development of television the world’s first 625 line television standard was designed in the Soviet Union in 1944 and became a national standard in 1946 the first broadcast in 625 lying Standard occurred in Moscow in 1948 the concept of 625 lines per frame was subsequently implemented in the European CCIR standard in 1936 Coleman tihany described the principle of plasma display the first flat panel display system you topic color the basic idea of using three monochrome images to produce a color image had been experimented with almost as soon as black-and-white televisions had first been built although he gave no practical details among the earliest published proposals for television was one by Maurice LeBlanc in 1884 a color system including the first mentions in television literature of line and frame scanning polish inventor Jan’s a panic patented a color television system in 1897 using a selenium photoelectric cell at the transmitter and an electromagnet controlling an oscillating mirror in a moving prism at the receiver but his system contained no means of analyzing the spectrum of colors at the transmitting end and could not have worked as he described it another inventor Havana’s Adam Ian also experimented with color television as early as 1907 the first color television project is claimed by him and was patented in Germany on the 31st of March 1908 patent number 197, 000 183 then in Britain on the 1st of April 1908 patent number 7219 in France patent number 390, 000 326 and in Russia in 1910 patent number seventeen thousand nine hundred and twelve Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the world’s first color transmission on the 3rd of July 1928 using scanning discs at the transmitting and receiving ends with three spirals of apertures each spiral with filters of a different primary color and three light sources at the receiving end with a commutator to alternate their illumination Baird also made the world’s first color broadcast on the 4th of February 1938 sending a mechanically scanned 120 line image from Baird’s Crystal Palace studios to a projection screen at London’s Dominion theater mechanically scanned color television was also demonstrated by Bell Laboratories in June 1929 using three complete systems of photoelectric cells amplifiers glow tubes and color filters with a series of mirrors to superimpose the red green and blue images into one full-color image the first practical hybrid system was again pioneered by John Logie Baird in 1940 he publicly demonstrated a color television combining a traditional black and white display with a rotating colored disc this device was very deep but was later improved with a mirror folding the light path into an entirely practical device resembling a large conventional console however Baird was not happy with the design and as early as 1944 had commented to a British government committee that a fully electronic device would be better in 1939 Hungarian engineer Peter Karl Goldmark introduced an electromechanical system while at CBS which contained an iconic oak center the CBS field sequential color system was partly mechanical with a disc made of red blue and green filters spinning inside the television camera 1200 revolutions per minute and a similar disc spinning in synchronization in front of the cathode ray tube inside the receiver set the system was first demonstrated to the Federal Communications Commission FCC on the 29th of August 1940 and shown to the press on the 4th of September CBS began experimental color field tests using film as early as the 28th of August 1940 and live cameras by the 12th of November NBC owned by RCA made its first field test of color television on the 20th of February 1941 CBS began daily color field tests on the first of June 1941 these color systems were not compatible with existing black-and-white television sets and as no color television sets were available to the public at this time viewing of the color field tests was restricted to RCA and CBS engineers in the invited press the war production board halted the manufacture of television and radio equipment for civilian use from the 22nd of April 1942 to the 20th of August 1945 limiting any opportunity to introduce color television to the general public as early as 1940 Baird had started work on a fully electronic system he called tella chrome early telic roam devices used to electron guns aimed at either side of a phosphor the phosphor was patterns to the electrons from the guns only fell on one side of the patterning or the other using cyan and magenta phosphors a reasonable limited color image could be obtained he also demonstrated the same system using monochrome signals to produce a 3d image called stereoscopic at the time a demonstration on the 16th of August 1944 was the first example of a practical color television system work on the telephone continued in plans were made to introduce a free gun version for full color however Birds untimely death in 1946 ended development of the telecom system similar concepts were common through the 1940s and 1950s differing primarily in the way they recombine the colors generated by the three guns the gear tube was similar to Baird’s concept but used small pyramids with the phosphorus deposited on their outside faces instead of beds 3d patterning on a flat surface the pellet Ron used three layers of phosphor on top of each other and increased the power of the beam to reach the upper layers when drawing those colors the chromate Rijn used a set of focusing wise to select the colored phosphors arranged in vertical strikes on the tube one of the great technical challenges of introducing color broadcast television was the desire to conserve bandwidth potentially three times that of the existing black and white standards and not use an excessive amount of radio spectrum in the United States after considerable research the national television systems committee approved an all-electronic system developed by RCA which encoded the color information separately from the brightness information and greatly reduced the resolution of the color information in order to conserve bandwidth as black-and-white TVs could receive the same transmission and display it in black and white the color system adopted is backwards compatible compatible color featured in RCA advertisements of the period is mentioned in the song America of West Side Story 1957 the brightness image remained compatible with existing black and white television sets at slightly reduced resolution while color televisions could decode the extra information in the signal and produce a limited resolution color display the higher resolution black and white in lower resolution color images combined in the brain to produce a seemingly high resolution color image the NTSC standard represented a major technical achievement the first color broadcast the first episode of the live programme the marriage TV series occurred on the 8th of July 1954 but during the following 10 years most network broadcasts and nearly all local programming continued to be in black and white it was not until the mid 1960s that color sets started selling in large numbers due in part to the color transition of 1965 in which it was announced that over half of all network primetime programming would be broadcast in color dat fall the first all color primetime season came just one year later in 1972 the last holdout among daytime network programs converted to color resulting in the first completely all color network season early color sets were either floor-standing console models or tabletop versions nearly as bulky and heavy sir in practice they remained firmly anchored in one place the introduction of G’s relatively compact and lightweight Porter color set in the spring of 1966 made watching color television a more flexible and convenient proposition in 1972 sales of color sets finally surpassed sales of black and white sets color broadcasting in Europe was not standardized on the PAL format until the 1960s and broadcasts did not start until 1967 by this point many of the technical problems in the early sets had been worked out and the spread of color sets in Europe was fairly rapid by the mid 1970s the only stations broadcasting in black and white were a few high numbered UHF stations in small markets and a handful of low-power repeater stations in even smaller markets such as vacation spots by 1979 even the last of these had converted to color and by the early 1980s B&W sets had been pushed into niche markets notably low-power uses small portable sets offer users video monitors screens in lower-cost consumer equipment by the late 1980s even these areas switched to color sets you topic digital digital television DTV is the transmission of audio and video by digitally processed and multiplexed signals in contrast to the totally analog and Channel separated signals used by analog television due to data compression digital TV can support more than one program in the same channel bandwidth it is an innovative service that represents the first significant evolution in television technology since coloured television in the 1950s digital TVs routes have been tied very closely to the availability of inexpensive high performance computers it was not until the 1990s that digital TV became feasible in the mid 1980s as Japanese consumer electronics firms forged ahead with the development of HDTV technology the Meuse analog format proposed by NHK a Japanese company was seen as a pacesetter that threatened to eclipse us electronics companies Technologies until June 1990 the Japanese new standard based on an analogue system was the front-runner among the more than 23 different technical concepts under consideration then an American company general instrument demonstrated the feasibility of a digital television signal this breakthrough was of such significance that the FCC was persuaded to delay its decision on an ATV standard until a digitally based standard could be developed in March 1990 when it became clear that a digital standard was feasible the FCC made a number of critical decisions first the Commission declared that the new ATV standard must be more than an enhanced analog signal but be able to provide a genuine HDTV signal with at least twice the resolution of existing television images 7 then to ensure that viewers who did not wish to buy a new digital television set could continue to receive conventional television broadcasts it dictated that the new a TV standard must be capable of being simulcast on different channels 8 the new a TV standard also allowed the new DTV signal to be based on entirely new design principles although incompatible with the existing NTSC standard the new DTV standard would be able to incorporate many improvements the final standards adopted by the FCC did not require a single standard for scanning formats aspect ratios or lines of resolution this compromise resulted from a dispute between the consumer electronics industry joined by some broadcasters and the computer industry joined by the film industry and some public interest groups over which of the two scanning processes interlaced or progressive would be best suited for the newer digital HDTV compatible display devices interlaced scanning which had been specifically designed for older analog CRT display technologies scans even numbered lines first they’re not numbered ones in fact interlaced scanning can be looked at as the first video compression model as it was partly designed in the 1940s to double the image resolution to exceed the limitations of the television broadcast bandwidth another reason for its adoption was to limit the flickering on early CRT screens whose phosphor coated screens could only retain the image from the electron scanning gun for a relatively short duration however interlaced scanning does not work as efficiently on newer display devices such as liquid crystal LCD for example which are better suited to a more frequent progressive refresh rate progressive scanning the format that the computer industry had long adopted for computer display monitors scans every line in sequence from top to bottom progressive scanning in effect doubles the amount of data generated for every full screen displayed in comparison to interlaced scanning by painting the screen in one pass in one sixtieth second instead of two passes in one thirtieth second the computer industry argued that progressive scanning is superior because it does not flicker on the new standard of display devices in the manner of interlaced scanning it also argued that progressive scanning enables easier connections with the internet and is more cheaply converted to interlaced formats than vice-versa the film industry also supported progressive scanning because it offered a more efficient means of converting film programming into digital formats for the part the consumer electronics industry and broadcasters argued that interlaced scanning was the only technology that could transmit the high quality pictures then and currently feasible ie 1080 lines per picture in 1920 pixels per line broadcasters also favored interlaced scanning because their vast archive of interlaced programming is not readily compatible with a progressive format William F Schreiber who was director of the advanced television research program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1983 until his retirement in 1990 fought that the continued advocacy of interlaced equipment originated from consumer electronics companies that were trying to get back the substantial investments they made in the interlaced technology digital television transition started in late 2000s all governments across the world set the deadline for analog shutdown by 2010 initially the adoption rate was low as the first digital tuner equipped TVs were costly but soon as the price of digital capable TVs dropped more and more households were converting to digital televisions the transition is expected to be completed worldwide by mid to late 2010 topic smart TV the advent of digital television allowed innovations like Smart TVs a smart television sometimes referred to as connected TV or hybrid TV is a television set or set-top box with integrated internet and web 2.
0 features and is an example of technological convergence between computers television sets and set-top boxes besides the traditional functions of television sets and set-top boxes provided through traditional broadcasting media these devices can also provide internet TV online interactive media over-the-top content as well as on-demand streaming media and home networking access these TVs come preloaded with an operating system Smart TV should not to be confused with Internet TV Internet Protocol television IPTV or with Web TV internet television refers to the receiving of television content over the Internet instead of by traditional systems terrestrial cable and satellite although Internet itself is received by these methods IPTV is one of the emerging internet television technology standards for use by television broadcasters web television wev TV is a term used for programs created by a wide variety of companies and individuals for broadcast on internet TV a first patent was filed in 1994 and extended the following year for an intelligent television system linked with data processing systems by means of a digital or analog network apart from being linked to data networks one key point is its ability to automatically download necessary software routines according to a user’s demand and process the needs major TV manufacturers have announced production of Smart TVs only for middle-end and high-end TVs in 2015 Smart TVs are expected to become dominant form of television by late 2010 you topic 3d 3d television conveys depth perception to the viewer by employing techniques such as stereoscopic display multi-view display 2d Plus depth or any other form of 3d display most modern 3d television sets use an active shutter 3d system or a polarized 3d system and summer autostereoscopic without the need of glasses stereoscopic 3d television was demonstrated for the first time on the 10th of August 1928 by John Logie Baird in his company’s premises at 133 Long Acre London Baird pioneered a variety of 3d television systems using electromechanical and cathode ray tube techniques the first 3d TV was produced in 1935 the advent of digital television in the 2000s greatly improved 3d TVs although 3d TV sets are quite popular for watching 3d home media such as on blu-ray discs 3d programming has largely failed to make inroads with the public many 3d television channels which started in the early 2010’s were shut down by the mid 2010 according to display search 3d television shipments totaled 41.
4 5 million units in 2012 compared with 24.
1 4 in 2011 and 2.
26 in 2010 as of late 2013 the number of 3d TV viewers started to decline topic broadcast systems you topic terrestrial television programming is broadcast by television stations sometimes called channels as stations are licensed by the government to broadcast only over assigned channels in the television band at first terrestrial broadcasting was the only way television could be widely distributed and because bandwidth was limited ie there were only a small number of channels available government regulation was the norm in the US the Federal Communications Commission FCC allowed stations to broadcast advertisements beginning in July 1941 but required public service programming commitments as a requirement for a license by contrast the United Kingdom chose a different route imposing a television licence fee on owners of television reception equipment to fund the British Broadcasting Corporation BBC which had public service as part of its Royal Charter WR GB claims to be the world’s oldest television station tracing its roots to an experimental station founded on the 13th of January 1928 broadcasting from the General Electric Factory in Schenectady New York under the call letters w2 X B it was popularly known as WGY television after its sister radio station later in 1928 General Electric started a second facility this one in New York City which had the call letters W to xbs in which today is known as W NBC the two stations were experimental in nature and had no regular programming as receivers were operated by engineers within the company the image of the felix the cat doll rotating on a turntable was broadcast for two hours every day for several years as new technology was being tested by the engineers on the 2nd of November 1936 the BBC began transmitting the world’s first public regular high-definition service from the Victorian Alexandra Palace in North London it therefore claimed to be the birthplace of TV broadcasting as we know it today with the widespread adoption of cable across the United States in the 1970s and 80s terrestrial television broadcasts have been in decline in 2013 it was estimated at about percent of US households used in antenna a slight increase in use began around 2010 due to switch over to digital terrestrial television broadcasts which offered pristine image quality over very large areas and offered an alternate to cable television CATV for called cutters all other countries around the world are also in the process of either shutting down analogue terrestrial television or switching over to digital terrestrial television you topic cable television cable television is a system of broadcasting television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency RF signals transmitted through coaxial cables or light pulses through fiber optic cables this contrasts with traditional terrestrial television in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television in the 2000 FM radio programming high-speed internet telephone service and similar non television services may also be provided through these cables the abbreviation CATV is often used for cable television it originally stood for community access television or community antenna television from cable television’s origins in 1948 in areas where over-the-air reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain large community antennas were constructed and cable was run from them to individual homes the origins of cable broadcasting are even older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924 earlier cable television was analog but since the 2000s all cable operators have switched to or are in the process of switching to digital cable television you topic satellite television satellite television is a system of supplying television programming using broadcast signals relayed from communication satellites the signals are received via an outdoor parabolic reflector antenna usually referred to as a satellite dish in a low-noise block downconverter lnb a satellite receiver then decodes the desired television program for viewing on a television set receivers can be external set-top boxes or a built-in television tuner satellite television provides a wide range of channels and services especially to geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television the most common method of reception is Direct broadcast satellite television DBS TV also known as direct to home DTH in DBS TV systems signals are relayed from a Direct broadcast satellite on the KU wavelength and the completely digital satellite TV systems formerly used systems known as television receive only these systems received analog signals transmitted in the c-band spectrum from FSS type satellites and required the use of large dishes consequently these systems were nicknamed big dish systems and were more expensive and less popular the Direct broadcast satellite television signals were earlier analog signals and later digital signals both of which require a compatible receiver digital signals may include high-definition television HDTV some transmissions and channels are free to air or free to view while many other channels are pay television requiring a subscription in 1945 British science fiction writer Arthur C Clarke proposed a worldwide communication system which would function by means of three satellites equally spaced apart in Earth orbit this was published in the October 1945 issue of the wireless world magazine and won him the Franklin Institute Stewart Valentine medal in 1963 the first satellite television signals from Europe to North America were relayed via the Telstar satellite over the Atlantic Ocean on the 23rd of July 1962 the signals were received and broadcast in North American and European countries and watched by over 100 million launched in 1962 the relay one satellite was the first satellite to transmit television signals from the u.
to Japan the first geosynchronous communication satellite Sinkin 2 was launched on the 26th of July 1963 the world’s first commercial communication satellite called Intel satai and nicknamed earlybird was launched into geosynchronous orbit on the 6th of April 1965 the first national network of television satellites called orbiter was created by the Soviet Union in October 1967 and was based on the principle of using the highly elliptical mallya satellite for rebroadcasting and delivering of television signals to ground downlink stations the first commercial North American satellite to carry television transmissions was Canada’s geostationary annek one which was launched on the 9th of November 1972 – six austrian shillings the world’s first experimental educational and Direct broadcast satellite DBS was launched on the 30th of May 1974 it transmitted at 860 megahertz using wideband FM modulation and had two sound channels the transmissions were focused on the Indian subcontinent but experimenters were able to receive the signal in Western Europe using home constructed equipment that drew on UHF television design techniques already in use the first in a series of Soviet geostationary satellites to carry direct to home television eccrine one was launched on the 26th of october 1976 it used a 714 megahertz UHF downlink frequency so that the transmissions could be received with existing UHF television technology rather than microwave technology you topic internet television internet television internet TV or online television is the digital distribution of television content via the Internet is opposed to traditional systems like terrestrial cable and satellite although the Internet itself is received by terrestrial cable or satellite methods Internet television is a general term that covers the delivery of television shows and other video content over the Internet by video streaming technology typically by major traditional television broadcasters internet television should not be confused with Smart TV IPTV or with web TV smart television refers to the TV set which has a built-in operating system Internet Protocol television IPTV is one of the emerging internet television technology standards for use by television broadcasters web television is a term used for programs created by a wide variety of companies and individuals for broadcast on Internet TV topic sets a television set also called a television receiver television TV set TV or tele is a device that combines a tuner display an amplifier and speakers for the purpose of viewing television and hearing it’s audio components introduced in late 1920s in mechanical form television sets became a popular consumer product after World War 2 in electronic form using cathode ray tubes the addition of color to broadcast television after 1953 further increased the popularity of television sets in an outdoor antenna became a common feature of suburban homes the ubiquitous television set became the display device for recorded media in the 1970s such as Betamax and VHS which enabled viewers to record TV shows and watch pre-recorded movies in the subsequent decades TVs were used to watch DVDs and blu-ray discs of movies and other content major TV manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT DLP plasma and fluorescent backlit LCDs by the mid 2010 television since 2010’s mostly use leds leds are expected to be gradually replaced by OLEDs in near future you topic display technologies you topic disk the earliest systems employed a spinning disk to create and reproduce images these usually had a low resolution and screen size and never became popular with the public topic CRT the cathode ray tube CRT is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns a source of electrons or electron emitter and a fluorescent screen used to view images it has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beams onto the screen to create the images the images may represent electrical waveforms oscilloscope pictures television computer monitor radar targets or others the CRT uses an evacuated glass envelope which is large deep ie long from front screen face to rear end fairly heavy and relatively fragile as a matter of safety the face is typically made of thick LED glass so as to be highly shatter resistant and to block most x-ray emissions particularly if the CRT is used in a consumer product in television sets and computer monitors the entire front area of the tube is scanned repetitively and systematically in a fixed pattern called a raster an image is produced by controlling the intensity of each of the three electron beams one for each additive primary color red green and blue with a video signal is a reference in all modern CRT monitors and televisions the beams are bent by magnetic deflection a varying magnetic field generated by coils and driven by electronic circuits around the neck of the tube although electrostatic deflection is commonly used in oscilloscopes a type of diagnostic instrument topic DLP digital light processing DLP is a type of video projector technology that uses a digital micromirror device some DLP’s have a TV tuner which makes them a type of TV display it was originally developed in 1987 by dr.
Larry Hornbeck of Texas Instruments while the DLP imaging device was invented by Texas Instruments the first DLP based projector was introduced by digital projection limited in 1997 digital projection and Texas Instruments were both awarded Emmy Awards in 1998 for invention of the DLP projector technology DLP is used a variety of display applications from traditional static displays to interactive displays and also non traditional embedded applications including medical security and industrial uses DLP technology is used in DLP front projectors stand-alone projection units for classrooms and business primarily but also in private homes in these cases the image is projected onto a projection screen DLP is also used in DLP rear projection television sets and digital signs it is also used in about 85% of digital cinema projection you topic plasma a plasma display panel PDP is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays 30 inches 76 centimeters or larger they are called plasma displays because the technology utilizes small cells containing electrically charged ionized gases or water in essence chambers more commonly known as fluorescent lamps you topic LCD liquid crystal display televisions LCD TV a television sets that use LCD display technology to produce images LCD televisions are much thinner and lighter than cathode ray tube CRTs of similar display size and are available in much larger sizes eg 90 inch diagonal when manufacturing costs fell this combination of features made LCDs practical for television receivers LCDs come in two types those using cold cathode fluorescent lamps simply called LCDs and those using LED is backlight called as LEDs in 2007 LCD televisions surpassed sales of crt-based televisions worldwide for the first time and the sales figures relative to other technologies accelerated LCD TVs have quickly displaced the only major competitors in the large screen market the plasma display panel and rear projection television in mid-2010 LCDs especially LEDs became by far the most widely produced and sold television display type LCDs also have disadvantages other technologies address these weaknesses including OLEDs fade and said but as of 2014 none of these have entered widespread production you topic on lead an alert organic light-emitting diode is a light emitting diode LED in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound which emits light in response to an electric current this layer of organic semiconductor is situated between two electrodes generally at least one of these electrodes is transparent o LEDs are used to create digital displays in devices such as television screens it is also used for computer monitors portable systems such as mobile phones handheld games consoles and PDAs there are two main families of OLED those based on small molecules and those employing polymers adding mobile ions to an OLED creates a light-emitting electrochemical cell or LEC which has a slightly different mode of operation other displays can use either passive-matrix pmo LED or active-matrix amo LED addressing schemes active-matrix OLEDs require a thin film transistor backplane to switch each individual pixel on or off but allow for higher resolution and larger display sizes an older display works without a backlight thus it can display deep black levels and can be thinner and lighter than a liquid crystal display LCD in low ambient light conditions such as a darkroom an OLED screen can achieve a higher contrast ratio than an LCD whether the LCD uses cold cathode fluorescent lamps or LED backlight OLEDs are expected to replace other forms of display in near future you topic display resolution you topic LD low definition television or LD TV refers to television systems that have a low screen resolution than standard definition television systems such 240p 320 asterisk 240 it is used in handheld television the most common source of LD TV programming is the Internet where mass distribution of higher resolution video files could overwhelm computer servers and take too long to download many mobile phones and portable devices such as Apple’s iPod Nano or Sony’s PlayStation Portable use LD TV video as higher resolution files would be excessive to the needs of the small screens 320 x 240 and 480 x two hundred and seventy-two pixels respectively the current generation of iPod nanos have LD TV screens as do the first three generations of iPod Touch and iPhone 480 x 320 for the first years of its existence YouTube offered only one low definition resolution of 320 X 240 P at 30fps or less a standard consumer grade VHS video tape can be considered SD TV due to its resolution approximately 360 x 480 i 576i you topic SD standard-definition television or SD TV refers to two different resolutions 576i with 576 interlaced lines of resolution derived from the european developed pal and SECAM systems and 480i based on the american national television system committee ntsc system SD TV is a television system that uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high-definition television 720p 1080i 1080p 1440p 4k uhdtv and 8k UHD or enhanced definition television IDI TV 480p in North America digital SD TV is broadcast in the same four to three aspect ratio is NTSC signals with widescreen content being center-cut however in other parts of the world that used the pal or SECAM color systems standard definition television is now usually shown with a 16 to 9 aspect ratio with the transition occurring between the mid 1990s and mid 2000s older programs with a 4 to 3 aspect ratio is shown in the US as 4 to 3 with non ATSC countries preferring to reduce the horizontal resolution by anamorphic lease scaling a pilla boxed image Topic HD high-definition television HD TV provides a resolution that is substantially higher than that of standard definition television HD TV may be transmitted in various format 1080p 1920 x 1080 P 2 million 73, 000 600 pixels approximately 2.
0 7 mega pixels per frame 1080i 1920 x 1080 I 1 million 36 thousand 800 pixels approx 1.
04 MP per field or two million 73 thousand 600 pixels approx 2.
07 MP per frame a non-standard cea resolution exists in some countries such as 1440 x 1080i 777 thousand 600 pixels approximately 0.
78 MP per field or 1 million five hundred and fifty-five thousand two hundred pixels approximately 1.
5 six MP per frame 720p 1280 x 720 p 920 1600 pixels approximately 0 92 MP per frame topic UHD ultra-high definition television also known as super hi-vision Ultra HD television ultra UHD TV or UHD includes 4k UHD 2160p and 8k UHD 4320 P which are to digital video formats proposed by NHK Science and Technology Research laboratory’s and defined and approved by the International Telecommunication Union itu the Consumer Electronics Association announced on the 17th of October 2012 that ultra high-definition or ultra HD would be used for displays that have an aspect ratio of at least 16 to 9 and at least one digital input capable of carrying and presenting native video at a minimum resolution of 3840 x 2160 pixels you Topic market share North American consumers purchase a new television set on average every seven years and the average household owns 2.
8 televisions as of 2011 48 million is sold each year at an average price of 460 dollars in size of 30 1897 centimeters you topic content topic programming getting TV programming shown to the public can happen in many different ways after production the next step is to market and deliver the product to whichever markets are open to using it this typically happens on two levels original run or first run a producer creates a program of one or multiple episodes and shows it on a station or network which has either paid for the production itself or to which a license has been granted by the television producers to do the same broadcast syndication this is the terminology rather broadly used to describe secondary programming usages beyond original run it includes secondary runs in the country of first issue but also international usage which may not be managed by the originating producer in many cases other companies TV stations or individuals are engaged to do the syndication work in other words to sell the product into the markets they are allowed to sell into by contract from the copyright holders in most cases that produces first-run programming is increasing on subscription services outside the US but few domestically produced programs are syndicated on domestic free-to-air FTA elsewhere this practice is increasing however generally on digital only FDA channels or with subscriber only first-run material appearing on FDA unlike the u.
repeat FDA screenings of an FDA network program usually only occur on that Network also affiliates rarely buy or produce non network programming that is not centered on local programming you topic genres television genres include a broad range of programming types that entertain inform and educate viewers the most expensive entertainment genres – producer usually dramas and dramatic miniseries however other genres such as historical Western genres may also have high production costs popular culture entertainment genres include action-oriented shows such as police crime detective dramas horror or thriller shows as well there are also other variants of the drama genre such as medical dramas and daytime soap operas science fiction shows can fall into either the drama or action category depending on whether they emphasize philosophical questions or high adventure comedy is a popular genre which includes situation comedy sitcom and animated shows for the adult demographic such as South Park the least expensive forms of entertainment programming genres are game shows talk shows variety shows and reality television game shows feature contestants answering questions and solving puzzles to win prizes talk shows contain interviews with film television music and sports celebrities and public figures variety shows feature a range of musical performers and other entertainers such as comedians and magicians introduced by a host or master of ceremonies there is some crossover between some talk shows and variety shows because leading talk shows often feature performances by bands singers comedians and other performers in-between the interview segments reality TV shows regular people ie not actors facing unusual challenges or experiences ranging from arrest by police officers cops to significant weight loss The Biggest Loser a variant version of reality shows depict celebrities doing mundane activities such as going about their everyday life The Osbournes Snoop Dogg’s fatherhood or doing regular jobs the simple life fictional television programs that some television scholars and broadcasting advocacy groups argue are quality television include series such as Twin Peaks and The Sopranos Kristen Thompson argues that some of these television series exhibit traits also found in art films such as psychological realism narrative complexity and ambiguous plot lines non-fiction television programs that some television scholars and broadcasting advocacy groups argue are quality television include a range of serious non-commercial programming aimed at a niche audience such as documentaries and public affairs shows topic funding around the globe broadcast TV is financed by government advertising licensing a form of tax subscription or any combination of these to protect revenues subscription TV channels are usually encrypted to ensure that only subscribers receive the decryption codes to see the signal unencrypted channels are known as free to air or FTA in 2009 the Global TV market represented 1217 point 2 million TV households with at least one TV in total revenues of two hundred and sixty eight point nine billion euros declining one point two percent compared to 2008 North America had the biggest TV revenue market share with 39 percent followed by Europe 31 percent asia-pacific 21 percent Latin America 8 percent and Africa and the Middle East 2 percent globally the different TV revenue sources divided into 45 to 50 percent TV advertising revenues 40 to 45 percent subscription fees and 10 percent public funding you topic advertising TV’s broad reach makes it a powerful and attractive medium for advertisers many TV networks and stations sell blocks of broadcast time to advertisers sponsors to fund the programming television advertisements variously called a television commercial commercial or ad in American English and known in British English as an advert is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization which conveys a message typically to market a product or service advertising revenue provides a significant portion of the funding for most privately owned television networks the vast majority of television advertisements today consist of brief advertising spots ranging in length from a few seconds to several minutes as well as program length infomercials advertisements of this sort have been used to promote a wide variety of goods services and ideas since the beginning of television the effects of television advertising upon the viewing public and the effects of mass media in general have been the subject of philosophical discourse by such luminaries as Marshall McLuhan the viewership of television programming as measured by companies such as Nielsen Media Research is often used as a metric for television advertisement placement and consequently for the rates charged to advertisers to air within a given network television program or time of day called a day part in many countries including the United States television campaign advertisements are considered indispensable for a political campaign in other countries such as France political advertising on television is heavily restricted while some countries such as Norway completely ban political advertisements the first official paid television advertisement was broadcast in the United States on the 1st of July 1941 / New York station wnbt now W NBC before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies the announcement for bulova watches for which the company paid anywhere from $4 to $9 reports vary displayed a wnbt test pattern modified to look like a clock with the hands showing the time the Buhl / logo with the phrase bule overwatch time was shown in the lower right-hand quadrant of the test pattern while the second hand swept around the dial for one minute the first TV ad broadcast in the UK was on ITV on the 22nd of September 1955 advertising Gibbs senior toothpaste the first TV ad broadcast in Asia was on Nippon television in Tokyo on the 28th of August 1953 advertising sake Asha now Seiko which also displayed a clock with the current time topic United States since inception in the US in 1941 television commercials have become one of the most effective persuasive and popular methods of selling products of many sorts especially consumer goods during the 1940s and into the 1950s programs were hosted by single advertisers this in turn gave great creative license to the advertisers over the content of the show perhaps due to the quiz show scandals in the 1950s Network shifted to the magazine concept introducing advertising breaks with multiple advertisers u.
advertising rates are determined primarily by Nielsen ratings the time of the day and popularity of the channel determine how much a TV commercial can cost for example it can cost approximately 750, 000 dollars for a 30-second block of commercial time during the highly popular American Idol while the same amount of time for the Superbowl can cost several million dollars conversely lesser viewed time slots such as early mornings and weekday afternoons are often sold in bulk to producers of infomercials at far lower rates in recent years the paid program or infomercial has become common usually in lengths of thirty minutes or one hour some drug companies and other businesses have even created news items for broadcast known in the industry as video news releases paying program directors to use them some TV programs also deliberately place products into their shows as advertisements a practice started in feature films and known as product placement for example a character could be drinking a certain kind of soda going to a particular chain restaurant or driving a certain make of car this is sometimes very subtle with shows having vehicles provided by manufacturers for low cost in exchange as a product placement sometimes a specific brand or trademark or music from a certain artist or group is used this excludes guest appearances by artists who perform on the show you topic united kingdom the TV regulator overseas TV advertising in the United Kingdom its restrictions have applied since the early days of commercially funded TV despite this an early TV mogul Roy Thompson likened the broadcasting license as being a license to print money restrictions mean that the big three national commercial TV channels ITV channel 4 and channel 5 can show an average of only seven minutes of advertising per hour eight minutes in the peak period other broadcasters must average no more than nine minutes twelve in the peak this means that many imported TV shows from the US have unnatural pauses where the UK company does not utilize the narrative breaks intended for more frequent us advertising advertisement must not be inserted in the course of certain specific prescribed types of programmes which lasts less than half an hour in scheduled duration this list includes any news or current affairs programmes documentaries and programmes for children additionally advertisements may not be carried in a program designed and broadcast for reception in schools or in any religious broadcasting service or other devotional programme or during a formal royal ceremony or occasion there also must be clear demarcations in time between the programs and the advertisements the BBC being strictly non-commercial is not allowed to show advertisements on television in the UK although it has many advertising funded channels abroad the majority of its budget comes from television licence fees see below and broadcast syndication the sale of content to other broadcasters you topic Island broadcast advertising is regulated by the broadcasting authority of Ireland topic subscription some TV channels are partly funded from subscriptions therefore the signals are encrypted during broadcast to ensure that only the paying subscribers have access to the decryption codes to watch pay television or specialty channels most subscription services are also funded by advertising you topic taxation or license television services in some countries may be funded by a television licence or a form of taxation which means that advertising plays a lesser role or no role at all for example some channels may carry no advertising at all in some very little including Australia ABC Belgium rtbf Denmark doctor aarti Japan NHK Norway NRK Sweden SVT United Kingdom BBC United States PBS the BBC carries no television advertising on its UK channels and is funded by an annual television licence paid by premises receiving live TV broadcasts currently it is estimated that approximately twenty six point eight million UK private domestic households own televisions with approximately 25 million TV licences in all premises in forces of 2010 this television licence fee is set by the government but the BBC is not answerable to or controlled by the government the two main BBC TV channels are watched by almost 90% of the population each week and overall have 27% share of total viewing despite the fact that 85% of homes are multi-channel with 42% of these having access to 200 free-to-air channels via satellite in another 43% having access to 30 or more channels via Freeview the licence that funds the seven advertising free BBC TV channels costs 147 pounds a year about $200 as of 2018 regardless of the number of TV sets owned the price is reduced by two-thirds if only black and white television is received when the same sporting event has been presented on both BBC and commercial channels the BBC always attracts the lion’s share of the audience indicating that viewers prefer to watch TV uninterrupted by advertising other than internal promotional material the Australian Broadcasting Corporation ABC carries no advertising it is banned under the ABC Act 1983 the ABC receives its funding from the Australian Government every three years in the 2014-15 federal budget the ABC received 1.
1 1 billion dollars the funds provide for the ABCs television radio online and international outputs the ABC also receives funds from its many ABC shops across Australia although funded by the Australian Government the editorial independence of the ABC is insured through law in France government-funded channels carry advertisements yet those who own television sets have to pay an annual tax low read events audio-visual in Japan NHK is paid for by license fees known in japanese as reception fee show cin Liao joshan REO the broadcast law that governs NH case funding stipulates that any television equipped to receive NHK is required to pay the fee is standardized with discounts for office workers and students who commute as well a general discount for residents of Okinawa Prefecture you topic broadcast programming broadcast programming or TV listings in the United Kingdom is the practice of organizing television programs in a schedule with broadcast automation used to regularly change the shuttling of TV programmes to build an audience for a new show retain that audience or compete with other broadcasters programs you topic social aspects television has played a pivotal role in the socialization of the 20th and 21st centuries there are many aspects of television that can be addressed including negative issues such as media violence current research is discovering that individuals suffering from social isolation can employ television to create what is termed a para social or Foe relationship with characters from the favorite television shows and movies is a way of deflecting feelings of loneliness and social deprivation several studies have found that Educational Television has many advantages the article the good things about television argues that television can be a very powerful and effective learning tool for children if used wisely you topic consumption you topic negative impacts with high lead content in CRTs and the rapid diffusion of new flat panel display technologies some of which LCDs use lamps which contain mercury there is growing concern about electronic waste from discarded televisions related occupational health concerns exist as well for disassemblies removing copper wiring and other materials from CRTs further environmental concerns related to television design and use relate to the devices increasing electrical energy requirements a 2017 study in the Journal of human resources found that exposure to cable television reduced cognitive ability in high school graduation rates for boys this effect was stronger for boys from more educated families the article suggests a mechanism where light television entertainment crowds out more cognitively stimulating activities equals equals see also.